The full list of projects contains the entire database hosted on this portal, across the available directories. The projects and activities (across all directories/catalogs) are also available by country of origin, by geographical region, or by directory.
The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) maps ice extent and type for shipping and weather prognoses (Table 6, #4.1). The ice extent at sea is of great importance for navigation, and assistance from an icebreaker is often needed, especially for harbors in the Bothnian Bay. Hence, ice conditions are mapped daily during the winter period, normally from the end of November until the end of May. Ice meteorologists take advantage of detailed reports about ice type and ice thickness from observers along the coast, e.g. pilots, special ice observers, and from the icebreakers passing through the ice-covered sea. Observations from helicopters are part of the regular icebreaking activities. Satellite images, especially from US weather satellites (NOAA-15, NOAA16 and NOAA-17), complement the ice reports and provide information on the large-scale ice situation on the scale 1 km x 1 km during clear sky conditions. More detailed ice information, down to the scale 20 m x 20 m, can be retrieved from a satellite-based instrument called Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR sensors are also found onboard the Canadian RADARSAT (in operation since 1996) and on the European ENVISAT (since 2003) and provide information on the ice situation regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A good description of the ice situation is also needed as input data for weather prognosis models because the extent of sea ice has a major influence on weather (especially in coastal areas), and on temperature, cloudiness, and precipitation. Results from daily ice mapping are saved in a database from which e.g. climate statistics for the Baltic region may be generated.
The Seal and Sea Eagle subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.6) monitors marine top consumers as indicator species to assess harmful effects of environmental toxics. Hopefully, in the long run, the program will show that these species have natural reproduction, health, and population. At present the subprogram has no sampling network. In the Bothnian Bay, the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) monitors grey seals, ringed seals, and European sea eagles. These observations will show the state and trends of population size, development, and health of seals and of reproduction, population size, and development of European sea eagles. The aim of early warning is to detect changes in reproduction, health, survival, and population trends that may result from changes in the marine environment.
The Integrated Coastal Fish Monitoring subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.5) documents the composition of the stationary fish community as well as the growth, general health situation, and reproduction success of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and burbot (Lota lota) as indicators of environmental toxics. Fish from one site close to Umeå is sent to Gothenburg University for analysis of biochemical, physiological, histological and pathogenic variables in perch.
The Free Water Body subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.4) aims to describe the effects of primarily overfertilization by means of hydrographical, chemical, and biological methods. One part of the program collects samples as frequently as 18 to 25 times per year at a few sea and coastal stations. Another part collects samples only once per year, during winter, to map the extent of areas with low oxygen content and the size of the nutrient pool, which gives the prerequisites for algal bloom in spring.
Metals and Organic Environmental Pollutants subprogram (Table 4, #8.2.3) will report mainly on environmental toxics in biota in the large sea basins, of which the Bothnian Bay and the Gulf of Bothnia are the farthest north. Sea mussels, fish, and bird eggs are collected and analyzed for the content of metals and organic toxics. The material is then stored at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) for possible later retrospective analyses.
At present, Sweden has 4 integrated monitoring (IM) sites that are part of a European network on integrated monitoring with an extensive measurement program. One of these sites, Gammtratten, situated in central Västerbotten, monitors several variables (Table 4, #3.2). SGU conducts groundwater sampling at 3 of the sites. In total, 18 stations are sampled 4 times per year. A program for comprehensive information on the state of forests in Europe was launched 1985 in response to acid deposition and fear of forest decline. The program was named the European ICP-Forest Program (International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Table 6, #5). ICP-Forest monitors forest conditions in Europe and operates at two levels of intensity. Level I is a systematic 16 km by 16 km transnational grid having around 6 000 observation plots in Europe. Level II is comprised of around 800 sites in selected forests throughout Europe with more intense observations. The Level I measurements consist of three parts: crown condition assessment, soil condition assessment, and foliar survey. The crown condition assessment includes the degree of defoliation, discoloring, and damage visible on trees. The soil condition assessment addresses possible nutrient imbalances caused by, e.g. acid deposition. The foliar survey assesses foliar nutrient concentrations, because changes in environmental conditions may affect foliar nutrient concentrations. The Swedish contribution is made by the national forest inventory (SLU-FRM), which estimates the degree of crown defoliation and discoloring on 700 permanent plots around the country. The Swedish Forest Agency (SST) organizes the Level II observational plots. They manage a program with more than 200 permanent plots throughout Sweden, on which they estimate forest vitality (several measures), forest growth, soil chemistry, and field vegetation. Of these plots, 100 are connected to the international network, and 20 are north of 60°N. Foliage chemistry is determined on 100 plots, deposition and soil water chemistry on 50 plots, air quality on 25 plots, and climate on 14 plots. The sampling intensity varies from once in 5 years to once per hour depending
Bird populations are monitored as part of SEPA’s “Landscape” program. The Swedish bird census project determines, once per year, the species and number of birds at about 500 sites throughout the country (Table 4, #5.2). The Department of Zooecology, Lund University, organizes this census. Ottenby Bird Observatory on Öland is responsible for bird counting and ringing of small birds at Ottenby (Table 4, #5.3), a key location for migrating birds. From August to November the number and species of migrating birds are counted at Falsterbo in southern Sweden. The Department of Zoo-ecology, Lund University, organizes the census (Table 4, #5.4). Falsterbo is a key location for migrating birds of prey. The Swedish sea-bird inventory is taken place at about 100 sites where these birds spend their winter. Number and species are estimated in January of each year in the internationally coordinated program. The Department of Zoo-ecology, Lund University, conducts the Swedish part (Table 4, #5.5).
Samples in moose (Table 4, #3.4) from Norrbotten and Jämtland counties (and 3 counties in southern Sweden) have been analyzed every autumn since 1996. The Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) organizes this work and stores some of the material, and the Swedish Veterinary Institute (SVA) performs chemical analyses on some of the tissues. Hunting associations organize much of the field sampling. Analyses: As, Cs, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V, Zn. 2007 screening of organic compounds Sites: Norrbotten, Jämtland, Western Götaland, Jönköping, and Kronoberg Counties Intensity: Each autumn since 1980 (Grimsö), else from 1996
Metals in tissue samples from reindeer are analyzed at 3 sites along the mountain ridge once per year. The Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) organizes this work and stores some of the material, and the Swedish Veterinary Institute (SVA) performs chemical analyses on some of the tissues. Reindeer samples are gathered once per year in connection with sluaghter. The samples are stored by NRM and on some material the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) make analyses. The program is part of SEPA:s program for monitoring in the mountains Analyses: Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Hg every year, PCB, dioxiner, DDT 1/5yr Sampling sites: Abisko, Ammarnäs, Funäsdalen Intensity: 1/year, at slaughter
An alternative for metal deposition measurements is to analyze their abundance in mosses since metals bind strongly to cation exchange sites in them. The concentration of metals in mosses would therefore act as an index for metal deposition. It is also assumed that uptake of most water and dissolved substances comes directly from precipitation; even if it has been shown that capillary transport of dissolved metals may be substantial. A national inventory of metals in mosses takes place at 5-year intervals (Table 4, #1.11). The two-to-three last years growth is identified and collected for chemical analysis ICP-AES and ICP-MS (As, Cd, Hg) Metals are adsorbed by mosses and metal concentration in mosses are therefore seen as a proxy for metal deposition. Moss species: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens Analyzed metals: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn Sampling sites: More than 700 sites over Sweden Time period: 1/5 years, first report 1975 and last reported 2005.
Since 1962, the soil inventory (RIS-MI) and the national forest inventory (RIS-RT) have had a common field organization. The soil inventory investigates soils and collects soil samples for laboratory analysis. It includes several soil variables, e.g. soil type and soil classification, stone and boulder abundance, water relations, and soil chemistry. Simultaneously to the soil inventory, RIS–MI samples the field layer vegetation.
Increasing temperature in the Arctic will increase the soil temperature and decrease the area covered by permafrost. Depending on the situation, microbial decomposition of stored soil organic carbon will increase and release carbon dioxide and eventually methane, two greenhouse gases that may accelerate climate change. Some international programs study permafrost development. At 1540 meters altitude in Tarfala, temperature is measured in one borehole down to 100 m and another down to 15 m below soil surface in the Permafrost and Climate in Europe (PACE) program coupled to the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTNP) (Table 5, #2.5). Four more shallow, boreholes near Abisko are suggested candidates for PACE, one managed by Luleå Technical University and three managed by Lund University (Table 5, #1.21). Abisko Research Station carries out manual sonding of the active permafrost layer at Stordalen, an activity on behalf of Geobiosphere Science Center (CGB), Lund University and part of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) (Table 3). The active layer has been monitored at 11 sites along an 80 km east-west profile from 1978 to 2002. Eight of these were bog sites situated in a transect from the dry and cold east to the milder and wetter west, all at approximately 390 m altitude. Permafrost monitoring started in 1972 at Kapp Linné, Svalbard, by the Geobiosphere Science Center (CGB), Lund University (Table 5, #23), and was reported for the period 1972 to 2002. Soil moisture and soil temperature were also monitored. The 10 monitoring sites differed in vegetation cover, elevation, substrate, active periglacial processes, and distance to the sea.
The earliest record of lake ice break-up in Sweden is from as early as 1701, when the ice on Torne River at Haparanda melted on May 31st. Since then SMHI has successively extended the ice observation network. By 1900 the network included about 150 sites, and by 1950 it included over 320 sites (Table 6, #2). By 1950, observations had been terminated at only 9 sites. During the following 50 years 72 new sites were added to the network while observations were terminated at 255 sites. The reason for the extensive network during the latter nineteenth century and the early twentieth century was the use of frozen lakes and rivers for transportation, but also the need to know when spring activities, e.g. floating timber, could commence. The ice broke up on Torne River at Haparanda, on average, on May 20th during the eighteenth century, on May 17th during the nineteenth century, and on May 10th during the twentieth century, indicating a long-term trend of earlier lake ice break up.
Mass balance measurements started at Storglaciären in the Kebnekaise massif in 1946 (Table 5, #2.1). At present, the measurements comprise a mass balance of 5 glaciers in the area. In calculating one year’s mass balance, measurements are taken twice per year (in winter and summer) and mass balances are calculated annually by the Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology at Stockholm University (SU-INK). Measurement of glacier fronts is a simpler alternative to mass balance calculations that could be used as an index for mass balance. Stockholm University (SU-INK) performs such front measurements at 18 glaciers every second year (Table 5, #2.2).
The total column amount of ozone and other trace gases are measured with mm-wave instruments, FT-IR and DOAS spectrometers, at IRF in Kiruna (Table 6, #8.1). With the sun or moon as infrared light sources, FT-IR spectrometers can quantify the total column amounts of many important trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere. At present the following species are retrieved from the Kiruna data: O3 (ozone), ClONO2, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC- 22, NO2, N2O, NO, HF, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH4, CO, COF2, H2O, HCN, HO2NO2, NH3, N2, and OCS. Together with Russian and Finnish institutes at the same latitude, IRF studies the stratospheric ozone and its dependence on polar atmospheric circulation and precipitation of charged particles. The ground-based instruments are also used to validate satellite measurements of vertical ozone distribution (Odin, SAGE III, and GOME). Aerosols and thin clouds are measured at IRF in Kiruna. For example, researchers use Lidars (Light Detection and Ranging) to measure polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. Winds and structures are measured with ESRAD MST radar at IRF in Kiruna. At IRF in Kiruna measurements are used to assess the physical and chemical state of the stratosphere and upper troposphere and the impact of changes on the global climate. Particle precipitation is measured by relative ionospheric opacity meters (riometers) at IRF in Kiruna. Riometers measure the absorption of cosmic noise at 30 and 38 MHz and provide information about particles with energies larger than 10 keV. The electron density of the ionosphere is measured by ionosonds and digisondes at IRF in Kiruna.
The Earth’s magnetic field is monitored with magnetometers at Fiby (near Uppsala) and at Abisko. The magnetic field fluctuates rapidly depending on solar activity and slowly depending on variations within the mantle of the Earth. The rapid fluctuations are measured every second by a flux-gate magnetometer and the slow fluctuations twice per month by a proton-precession magnetometer (Table 6, #9.2). Data are archived at World Data Center WDC-C1 in Copenhagen, WDC-C2 in Kyoto, and NGDC in Boulder. The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) is responsible for the protonprecession magnetometer measurements.
In and around Kiruna, IRF uses all-sky cameras and other images to detect and record the aurora. The all-sky cameras have 180° field-of-view and take one image per minute. They have been in operation since the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957 (Table 6, #9.1). The Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) is a large-scale array of high-resolution monochrome CCD detectors around Kiruna, a network of seven stations within approximately 50 x 50 km. The International Network for Auroral Optical Studies of the Polar Ionosphere, coordinated by IRF, is a forum for planning measuring campaigns, distributing information, and intercalibrating different sets of instruments located in different parts of the world. The network is part of the IPY-endorsed project Heliosphere Impact on Geospace (IPY Cluster #63), with Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research (ICESTAR) and International Heliophysical Year (IHY) as lead projects.
SMHI measures the thickness of the ozone layer at 2 sites in Sweden, one at Norrköping in southeast Sweden and one at Svartberget Forest Research Park, Vindeln, 70 km NW of Umeå. At Svartberget a Dobson and a Brewer Spectrophotometer are operational. The measurements are part of SEPA’s Environmental Monitoring Program.
Organic environmental pollutants in air and precipitation are assessed by the Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM), Stockholm University in a program with 3 sampling sites in Sweden and northern Finland. The analyses include 31 variables, comprised of 12 PAHs, 7 PCBs, 3 DDTs, 3 chlordanes, 2 HCHs, 1 HCB, and 3 PBDEs (Table 4, #1.7).
Deposition measurements are mainly made in forest injury observation plots laid out by the Swedish Forestry Agency (SST). The observations made are: Air Chemistry: SO2, NO2, NH3, O3 Soil Water Chemistry: pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, TOC Deposition open field precipitation: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn Deposition in forest throughfall: H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn A notorious problem in deposition assessments is dry deposition on forest canopies. If throughfall is sampled below the canopy it will consist not only of dry and wet deposition, but also of canopy leakage, i.e. exudates and diffusion of substances from within the leaves. However, it has been argued that throughfall sampling, even if not free from problems, may add information to the normal wet deposition sampling. IVL operates a throughfall sampling network comprised of 10 forest sites for sampling, from which monthly samples are analyzed for pH, SO4, NO3, NH4, Kjeldahl-N, Cl, K, Ca, Na, Mg, TOC, conductivity, alkalinity, and amount of throughfall.