The scientific objectives of this project is to add information that helps elucidate the role of the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas) in the climatic system of the Northern Europe. More specifically it has the following aims:
- To assess the heat and carbon dioxide fluxes over the air-sea interface in the Barents Sea and elucidate the effect this has on the formation of Arctic Ocean intermediate waters and associated carbon fluxes.
- To assess the temporal variability of the fresh water distribution in the Arctic Ocean, both river runoff and sea ice melt, and the affect this has on the outflow of fresh water to the regions of open ocean deep water formation (the Greenland, Iceland and Labrador Seas).
- To assess the mixing of upper and intermediate waters along the East Greenland Current that gives the properties of the overflow into the North Atlantic Ocean and thus add to the driving of the thermohaline circulation. This also contributes to the sequestering of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.
This is not a National Implementation Plan (NIP) project
- Project time span
- not specified
- Data collection
- not specified
- Data processing
- not specified
- Data reporting
- not specified
- Are data archived or planned to be archived at an AMAP Thematic Data Centre?
- If no (or only part of data are reported to a TDC), where and how are (other) data stored?
- Data are partly stored in international Arctic Ocean data archives, while others are available from the contact person
- References to key publications (or planned publications) and data reports
- Anderson, L.G., G. Björk, O. Holby, G. Kattner, P.K. Koltermann, E.P. Jones, B. Liljeblad, R. Lindegren, B. Rudels, and J. Swift, Water Masses and Circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 North Pole Expedition. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3273-3283, 1994.
Jones, E.P., B. Rudels, and L.G. Anderson, Deep waters of the Arctic Ocean: Origin and circulation. Deep-Sea Res., 42, 737-760, 1995.
Rudels, B., L.G. Anderson, and E.P. Jones, Formation and evolution of the surface mixed layer and halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 8807-8821, 1996.
Olsson, K., and L.G. Anderson, Input and biogeochemical transformation of dissolved carbon in the Siberian shelf seas, Continental Shelf Res., 17, 819-833, 1997.
Anderson, L.G., K. Olsson, and M. Chierici, A Carbon budget for the Arctic Ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 455-465, 1998.
Anderson, L.G., M. Chierici, A. Fransson, K. Olsson, and E.P. Jones, Anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean: Inventory and sinks. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27,707-27,716, 1998.
Jones, E.P., L.G. Anderson and J.H. Swift, Distribution of Atlantic and Pacific waters in the upper Arctic Ocean: Implications for circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(6), 765-768, 1998.
Olsson, K., L.G. Anderson, M. Frank, A. Luchetta, and W. Smethie, Carbon Utilization in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44(1), 95-105, 1999.
Anderson, L.G., E.P., Jones, and B. Rudels, Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean estimated by a plume entrainment model constrained by CFCs. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,423-13,429, 1999.
Anderson, L.G., K-Å. Carlsson, P.O.J. Hall, E. Holm, D. Josefsson, K. Olsson, B.R.R. Persson, T. Persson, P. Roos, A. Tengberg and M. Wedborg, The effect of the tundra on the environment of the Siberian shelf seas and the Arctic ocean, Ambio, 28(3), 270-280, 1999.
Chierici, M., H. Drange, L.G. Anderson and T. Johannessen, Inorganic carbon fluxes between the Greenland Sea and the surrounding areas, calculated by applying model results. J. Mar. Sys., 22, 295-309, 1999.
Anderson, L.G., M. Chierici, E. Fogelqvist, and T. Johannessen, Flux of Anthropogenic and Steady State carbon into the deep Greenland Sea. J. Geophys. Res., in print, 2000.
Anderson, L.G., H. Drange, M. Chierici, A. Fransson, T. Johannessen, I. Skjelvan and F. Rey, Annual variability of carbon flux in the upper Greenland Sea, as evaluated from measured data and a box model. Tellus, in print, 2000.
- Samples/specimens archived in specimen banks?
Methods & Procedures
- Procedures and methodology used for, e.g., sampling and sample storage, sample pretreatment, extraction and analysis, including which laboratories are involved, references to methods employed, etc.
Standard oceanographic techniques have been applied.
- QA/QC Information (what QA/QC procedures are implemented, laboratories involvment in QA/QC activities, model verification/validation routines, etc.)
Standard reference material have been used according to the WOCE protocol.
- Is this a bi- AND multi-lateral project (i.e. a project involving cooperation between different countries)?
- Other institutes involved in the project
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada
Department of Geophysics, University of Bergen, Norway
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Finland
Department of Oceanography, Göteborg University, Sweden