Finland: projects/activities

Directory entires that have specified Finland as the primary or lead country for the project/activity and are included in the AMAP, ENVINET, SAON and SEARCH directories. To see the full list of countries, see the countries list. The specified country may not be the geographic region where the activity is taking place - to select a geographic region, see the list of regions.

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Displaying: 21 - 40 of 46 Next
21. The effects of acidification on fish in lakes and rivers of Northeastern Finnish Lapland

Fish status surveys in small acid sensitive rivers and lakes in northeastern Finnish Lapland. River studies by means of electrofishing as part of regular regional Fish monitoring. In lakes, irregular gillnet and electofishing surveys in certain high altitude lakes and ponds.

Biological effects Fish Acidification Fish communities Acidification effects Phoxinus phoxinus Arctic Salmo trutta Salmo salar Lota lota
22. Monitoring of the Atlantic salmon stocks of the Teno (Tana) and Näätämö (Neidenelva) river systems, northernmost Fennoscandia.

Monitoring of the salmon stocksof the Teno and Näätämö river systems is based on long term data collection on juvenile salmon production, biological characteristics of the spawning stock, origin of salmon (wild/reared) and statistics on fishery and catches. Information on other fish species than salmon is also available.

Biological effects Biology Populations Hydrography Catchment studies Fish Indigenous people Acidification Spatial trends Modelling Biodiversity Arctic Reproduction Diet Temporal trends Ecosystems
23. AMAP / Human Health in Finnish Lapland

The general objective of the human health sub-programme is to protect and promote the health of Arctic peoples, especially children, with respect to exposure environmental contaminants.

Pathways Organochlorines PCBs Heavy metals Indigenous people PAHs Spatial trends Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Temporal trends Human health Human intake
24. Hydrometeorological monitoring

Hydrometeorological monitoring program produces real time information on precipitation and snow water equivalent. Information is utilized in modeling and forecasting floods and snow load. As part of the program, information of evaporation is produced with WMO standards. The program is coordinated by Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Finnish meteorological institute and Lapland regional centre for economic development, transport and the environment manage measurements and field work.

Climate Hydrometeorology Climate change snow water equivalent Arctic monitoring evaporation. precipitation
25. External radiation dose rate monitoring in Finnish Lapland

Part of the continuous nationwide monitoring of radionuclides in Finland. The dose rate monitoring network in Finnish Lapland comprise 32 automatic measurement stations (Finnish nation-wide monitoring network consists of about 257 stations equipped with GM tubes). Three of the stations are equipped with LaBr3-detectors measuring a gammaspectrum with 10 minute intervals. The network is intended for civilian defence and surveillance purposes, not for research. It is a good early warning system in radiation fallout situation. Every monitoring station have individual alarm level: 7 days average dose rate + 0.1 microSv/h. The dense network indicate also the extent of the radioactive contamination.

external radiation monitoring Radioactivity Atmosphere
26. Hydrological monitoring

Hydrological monitoring aims produce real time information of water level and discharge, ice thickness including freeze-up and break-up in winter from a network of monitoring stations. Monitoring data is utilized in water resource planning, water management and flood damage prevention. Monitoring is coordinated by Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE).

Climate Climate change Ice River ice Arctic Temporal trends
27. Continous monitoring of gammanuclides, strontium (beta) and tritium in deposition in Finnish Lapland

Part of the continuous nationwide monitoring of radionuclides in Finland. The dose rate monitoring network in Finnish Lapland comprise 32 automatic measurement stations (Finnish nation-wide monitoring network consists of about 257 stations equipped with GM tubes). Three of the stations are equipped with LaBr3-detectors measuring a gammaspectrum with 10 minute intervals. The network is intended for civilian defence and surveillance purposes, not for research. It is a good early warning system in radiation fallout situation. Every monitoring station have individual alarm level: 7 days average dose rate + 0.1 microSv/h. The dense network indicate also the extent of the radioactive contamination.

tritium strontium Radioactivity caesium Radionuclides fallout nuclides Atmosphere iodine deposition
28. Monitoring of the effects of air pollution and climatic change on lakes

Monitoring of the water quality reflecting long-range transboundary air pollution including acidifying compounds, metals and POPs, and climatic change. Part of the sites are also including in biological monitoring. Monitoring sites are the most upland lakes and they are not under any significant human impact. Information is distributed to the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Monitoring is managed by Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE).

Biology air pollution Heavy metals Climate Acidification climate change Ecosystems POPs
29. Lichens obtained from permanent study plots as bioindicators for radioactive fallout

Lichens are the best terrestrial bioindicators for radioactive fallout and also the most important link in foodchain lichen - reindeer - man. Generally, Fenced permanent sampling plots are used to study the biological half-life of 137Cs in lichen. However, some of the STUKs sampling plots are unfenced which are subjected to grazing by reindeer. Start year: early 60's as a project of the Radiochemistry Department of University in Helsinki. Stuk's participation since 1975. Data are collected from 1961, 1980, 1982 or 1986, continuously every 3-5 years. Data processing/work-up and data archiving/reporting work are conducted from 1961, 1980, 1982. Continous data sets from 1986 to 2010.

man Soils radiocaesium strontium. Radionuclides Arctic reindeer Food webs foodchain lichen Ecosystems
30. Hydrogeological monitoring

Monitoring follows groundwater level and quality as well as changes in soil humidity and frost depth in winter.

Soils Climate Climate change frost Arctic Groundwater humidity.
31. Monitoring of airborne radioactive substances in Lapland

Part of the continuous nationwide monitoring of radionuclides in Finland. STUK is responsible for monitoring of radioactivities in atmosphere. STUK operates a network of eight aerosol samplers from which three are located in Finnish, Lapland at Rovaniemi, Sodankylä and Ivalo. The sampling is done either weekly or bi-weekly. Gammaspectroscopic measurements are done in the laboratory in Rovaniemi. The lowest activities are detected at microBq/m3 level.

sodium. beryllium Radioactivity caesium airborne radionuclide monitoring Radionuclides Atmosphere iodine
32. Monitoring of pollutants in fish and sediment

Monitoring aims to follow certain pollutant concentrations and their changes in fish tissue and sediment. Both inland lakes, one river and coastal areas are sampled. Lapland monitoring site is Lake Inarijärvi. Project is managed by Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE).

Biological effects Biology tissue pollutant Heavy metals Fish sediment. monitoring Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Sediments Ecosystems
33. Oulanka, EMEP station, Northern Finland

Monitoring of air quality and deposition.

Atmospheric processes Ozone Heavy metals Long-range transport Acidification Contaminant transport Atmosphere Temporal trends
34. National deposition monitoring, Northern Finland

Monitoring of direct deposition. Project is run by Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

Atmospheric processes Heavy metals Long-range transport Acidification Arctic Atmosphere Temporal trends
35. Pallas, AMAP station, Northern Finland

The overall objectives for operation of the station will follow those defined in the AMAP programme. The main interests are the levels and trends of airborne toxic pollutants (POPs and heavy metals) in northern Fennoscandia.

Atmospheric processes Organochlorines PCBs Arctic haze Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Acidification Contaminant transport Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Pesticides Atmosphere Temporal trends
36. Sodankylä-Pallas super site of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) (Sodankylä-Pallas)

Atmosphere monitoring, cryosphere monitoring, atmosphere-biosphere interaction. In situ monitoring with automatic and manual systems (e.g. synoptic meteorological observations since 1908), measurements with ground-based reference systems of space-borne remote sensing instruments Network type: In situ monitoring with automatic and manual systems (e.g. synoptic meteorological observations since 1908), measurements with ground-based reference systems of space-borne remote sensing instruments

Geology Atmosphere Ecosystems
37. Värriö sub-arctic research station of University of Oulu and University of Helsinki (Värriö)

SMEAR I –station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations) was built in 1991-1992 at the side of Värriö Subarctic Research Station to monitor the pollution originating from Kola Peninsula. Continuous measurements of trace gases, aerosols, photosynthesis growth of Scots pines and meteorology have been carried on by the University of Helsinki since 1992. The station is located at the northern border of Salla municipality, some 6 km’s from the Russian border and built on top of a 390 m high forested hill. A 16 meter high weather mast is mounted next to the measurement cabin. The closest source area for air pollutants are the mining and metallurgical industry at the Kola Peninsula with the most important point sources being Nikel, Montcegorsk and Zapolyarny, respectively. In addition to the measurements carried on by the University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been measuring both sulphates and heavy metals using filter sampling techniques. Also, respiration and photosynthesis of the soil has been measured campaign wise in the vicinity of the station. Trace gases have been measured at four different levels (2, 6.5, 9 and 15 m) above the ground until recently the three highest sampling levels were taken off. The sulphur dioxide concentration is measured with a pulsed fluorescence analyzer. Nitrogen oxides (most importantly NO and NO2) are measured with an analyzer that is based on chemiluminescence and ozone is measured with a photometric analyzer. Total aerosol concentration has been measured since 1991 and the particle size distribution since 1997. The cut-off diameter of the size distribution measurements was changed from 8 nm to 3 nm in 2003. The total concentration is measured using CPC (Condensation Particle Counter) and the size distribution with DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) system. Photosynthesis of Scots pines is measured from living twigs using chambers placed on top of the trees. Also, the growth in width and length are measured. A wide range of meteorological parameters are measured at five different levels (2, 4, 6.6, 9, 15 ja 16 m). Network type: Automatic and manual monitoring of atmosphere and biosphere (incl. SMEAR I –station and synoptic weather observations) as well as tracking and monitoring wide range of flora and fauna (e.g. game, insects and berries).

Atmosphere Ecosystems
38. Intensive forest monitoring sites of Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) (Intensive forest monitoring network)

The national program of intensive forest monitoring is managed by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla). In 2011 five of the 18 Finnish intensive monitoring plots situated in Finnish Lapland (Fig. 5.1.: Sevettijärvi, Pallasjärvi and three plots in Kivalo). Finnish national intensive forest monitoring network is part of pan-European ICP Forests network of ca. 800 plots (http://icp-forests.net/page/level-ii). ICP Forests (the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) operates under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. These intensive monitoring plots were established in co-operation of ICP Forests and European Commission in mid 1990’s. European Commission co-financed forest monitoring under forest monitoring regulations until the end of 2006 when the Forest Focus regulation (EC No 2152 / 2003) expired. During 2009-2011 part of these intensive forest monitoring plots were included in Life+-project called “FutMon” (Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System: http://www.futmon.org/). Monitoring is carried out following the manual of ICP Forests (http://icp-forests.net/page/icp-forests-manual) and the monitoring data is submitted once a year to the ICP Forests database in Hamburg. Every year Programme Coordinating Centre of ICP Forests publishes technical and executive reports on the condition of forests in Europe. ICP Forests monitoring activities provide information also for a number of criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management as defined by the Forest Europe Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. Network type: National nation-wide monitoring

Pollution sources Environmental management Atmosphere Ecosystems
39. Hydrological observation network of the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) (Hydrological observation networks)

The national program of hydrological monitoring is managed by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), which is responsible for keeping the monitoring networks representative, for giving instructions concerning observations and measurements, for collecting the results into a database and for information services concerning the water situation. Regional environment centers are responsible for the field work needed for maintaining the monitoring stations, but they also have their own regional monitoring programs and information services. The data available from SYKE for northern Finland also include a land cover classification covering the region with a spatial resolution of 25 m. Actual hydrological monitoring observations are available e.g. on snow water equivalent, snow depth, snow density, fraction of snow covered area, soil frost depth, lake and river ice, water temperature, river discharges and water levels. Fig. 4.1 shows the monitoring network for the whole region of Finland. The snow data include monthly or bimonthly observations at fixed snow courses (each course is track of 2 to 4 kilometres providing an estimate on regional snow cover characteristics separately for open and forested areas (actually for six land cover categories). Also water quality (including some optical characteristics) monitoring data are available from selected lakes of northern Finland. Network type: Hydrological in-situ monitoring

Snow and ice properties
40. Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Atmospheric Composition and Climate Change, Finnish Center of Excellence

The main objective is to study the importance of aerosol particles on climate change and on human health. Particularly, the focus will be on the effect of biogenic aerosols on global aerosol load. During the recent years it has become obvious that homogeneous nucleation events of fresh aerosol particles take frequently place in the atmosphere, and that homogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth have significant role in determining atmospheric aerosol load. In order to be able to understand this we need to perform studies on formation and growth of biogenic aerosols including a) formation of their precursors by biological activities, b) related micrometeorology, c) atmospheric chemistry, and d) atmospheric phase transitions. Our approach covers both experimental (laboratory and field experiments) and theoretical (basic theories, simulations, model development) approaches.

Atmospheric processes UV radiation Climate Atmosphere