The AMAP Project Directory (AMAP PD) is a catalog of projects and activities that contribute to assessment and monitoring in the Arctic. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), is a working group under the Arctic Council, tasked with monitoring and asessing pollution, climate change, human health and to provide scientific advice as a basis for policy making.
The directory, which is continously updated, documents national and international projects and programmes that contribute to the overall AMAP programme, and provides information on data access as well as a gateway for the AMAP Thematic Data Centres.
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Fresh water quality monitoring program is designed to collect long term water quality data from lakes and rivers. It serves EU obligated data collection among other interests. The data is used to detect variation in time in the measured variables and to assess the physiological and chemical state of the water body. The program is managed by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Regional centres for economic development, transport and the environment are responsible for the field work needed for maintaining the monitoring stations. Monitoring frequency varies between locations from annual to once in three, six or 12 years.
National Monitoring Programme in Sweden. The purpose is to quantify deposition (mainly of sulphur and nitrogen), and to illustrate effects in the soil, for example possible acidification. The aim of the network is to describe the current situation, regional differences, trends over time, and the effects of acid deposition. The atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen are the main causes of current acidification of ecosystems. Acidification results in substantial pH reduction in soil, groundwater, lakes and water courses. Deposition is investigated as precipitation studies in open field areas (bulk precipitation) and by throughfall studies in nearby forest stands. For sulphur and chloride, throughfall monitoring is useful for determination of total deposition. In areas, or during periods with low sulphur deposition, internal circulation in vegetation might influence results from throughfall measurements significantly. For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and ozone are measured at some locations. The observations made are: (i) air chemistry (SO2, NO2, NH3, O3); (ii) soil water chemistry (pH, Alk, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, ooAl, oAl, Al-tot, total organic carbon); (iii) deposition in open field (precipitation, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn); (iv) deposition in forest (throughfall, H+, SO4-S, Cl, NO3-N, NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn). For nitrogen and base cations (mainly potassium and manganese) canopy interaction is important. Soil solution chemistry in the forest stands is used as indicator of soil conditions.
The aim of this project is to measure the airborne deposition of acidifying and eutrophicating compounds (gaseous and particulate reduced and oxidised nitrogen and sulphur compounds) in air and precipitation over Sweden at high altitude. The results from this programme is used to calculate and model basic processes governing sources, atmospheric transport and sinks of atmospheric trace constituents. The observations are made at three stations. The measurements include particulate reduced and oxidised nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gaseous and particulate form in air and precipitation.
This project is now part of the project: Acidifying and Eutrophifying Substances in Air and Precipitation
National Environmental Monitoring Programme. National Environmental Monitoring Programme. The PMK Network is part of the national network for deposition measurements. The aim is (i) a long-term monitoring of concentration and deposition of selected air transported compounds caused acidification and eutrophication in different parts of Sweden; (ii) to generate knowledge about long-term variation in the field deposition, (iii) to give the background data from low polluted areas for calculation of pollutants deposition in more polluted areas the monitoring of pollutants in air and precipitations are proceed. Ozon and air samples for analysis of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, HCl as well as basic metal ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, are taken on a monthly basis in air and precipitation. Ozone, as well as sulphur and the nitrogen compound particles are measured in air, and sulphur and nitrogen compounds, base cations, pH and electro-conductivity in precipitation.
National Environmental Monitoring in Sweden. Monitoring of heavy metals in fish is performed in 110 trend lakes in Sweden. Annual sampling is carried out in 32 lakes, of which seven are in AMAP area. Three fish species have been selected: Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), Northern pike (Esox lucius), and Perch (Perca fluviatilis). A selection of metals is analysed in prepared samples of muscle and liver tissue. Analysed metals in liver are : Al, Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In muscle samples Hg and stabile isotopes δ 15N, δ 13C are analysed.
National Environmental Monitoring Programme in Sweden. The objective is to follow the deposition of heavy metals over Sweden by the analyses of their concentration in two selected species of moss. The selected species are: Red-stemmed Feather-moss (Pleurozium schreberi) and Mountain Fern Moss (Hylocomnium splendens). Preferred specie: Red-stemmed Feather-moss (Pleurozium schreberi). Metals adsorbed by mosses almost exclusively come from the air and metal concentration in mosses are therefore seen as a proxy for metal deposition. Analysed elements are: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn (2015). The moss samples are taken from over 600 stands across Sweden.
Annual measurements of physical, chemical, and biological variables are taken in small to medium sized, mostly minimally disturbed lakes, situated across the country. Of the 108 lakes that are part of the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme, 20 are situated in AMAP area. The main aim of the monitoring programme is to document long-term changes related to global or regional change and human-generated stressors. To complement the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme, national lake surveys provide spatial data needed to determine regional patterns, and coupled with time-series data, changes in surface water quality. The National Lake Survey (the Surveillance Stations, re-sampled stations) programme for lake water quality, started in 2007 and results in data of all Swedish lake conditions. Each year some 800 new lakes are sampled to determine chemical and physical conditions; lakes are resampled at 6 year intevals. 4824 lakes are sampled in the country during a six-year sampling cycle, with 1270 situated in AMAP area. The variables included in the Trend Station Lake monitoring programme include water chemistry, fish, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates, whilst the National Lake Survey is focused solely on chemical and physical parameters.
National Environmental Monitoring Programme in Sweden. Measurements of persistant organic pollutants in air and precipitation are carried out at Råö, Hallahus, Aspvreten, and in Pallas (Northern Finland). The monitoring programme includes measurements of: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), some pesticides (HCH, DDT) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE).
The project monitors the artificial radioactivities in natural products in Finnish Lapland. The work mainly started after Chernobyl accident.
Geochemical mapping project based on multimaterial and -elemental method covering the NW Russia and adjacent areas of Finland and Norway. NW-Russia is of strategic importance not only for Europe but also for the sosio-economic development of the whole Russia for its richness in natural resources. Their use must be based on environmentally acceptable principles. In addition, within the area exist numerous industrial centres whose environmental impacts are unknown. The information produced by the project is significant for the future development of the area and remedial measures of the environment. The project lead by the applicant, will be carried out in 1999-2003 in cooperation with Russian and Norwegian partners.
The IPY-project ‘COPOL’ has a main objective of understanding the dynamic range of man-made contaminants in marine ecosystems of polar regions, in order to better predict how possible future climate change will be reflected in levels and effects at higher trophic levels. This aim will be addressed by 4 integrated work packages covering the scopes of 1) food web contaminant exposure and flux, 2) transfer to higher trophic levels and potential effects, 3) chemical analyses and screening, 4) synthesis and integration. To study the relations between climate and environmental contaminants within a project period of four years, a “location-substitutes-time”-approach will be employed. The sampling is focussed towards specific areas in the Arctic, representing different climatic conditions. Two areas that are influenced differently by different water masses are chosen; the Kongsfjord on the West-coast of Spitzbergen (79N, 12 E) and the Rijpfjord North-East of Svalbard (80N, 22 E). The main effort is concentrated in the Kongsfjord. This fjord has been identified as particularly suitable as a study site of contaminants processes, due to the remoteness of sources, and for influences of climatic changes, due to the documented relation between Atlantic water influx and the climatic index North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The water masses of the Rijpfjord have Arctic origin and serves as a strictly Arctic reference. Variable Atlantic water influx will not only influence abiotic contaminant exposure, but also food web structure, food quality and energy pathways, as different water masses carry different phyto- and zooplankton assemblages. This may affect the flux of contaminants through the food web to high trophic level predators such as seabirds and seals, due to altered food quality and energy pathways.
A tropospheric lidar system with a Nd:YAG-Laser was installed at the Koldewey-Station in 1998. It operates at a laser wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm with detection at 532 nm polarised and depolarised, and at Raman wavelengths like 607nm (nitrogen). It records profiles of aerosol content, aerosol depolarisation and aerosol extinction. During polar night the profils reach from the ground up to the tropopause level, while during polar day background light reduces the altitude range. The main goal of the investigations is to determine the climate impact of arctic aerosol. Analysis of the climate impact will be performed by a high resolution regional model run at the Alfred Wegener Institute (HIRHAM). The lidar system is capable to obtain water vapour profiles in the troposphere. Water vapour profiles are crucial for the understanding of the formation of aerosols. The water vapour profiles are also used for the validation of profiles measured by the CHAMP satellite from 2001 onwards.
The pressure on the ecosystems of the mountains of northern Sweden has increased over the last hundred years as a result of, for example, hydropower and infrastucture development, mining and tourism. This paper discusses the impacts of a highway project between Kiruna and Riksgränsen, in a sensitive mountain area in northernmost Sweden. The study has a holistic and dynamic approach including components from bio-, earth- and social sciences. The project was carried out in three stages; the first covering the construction period between 1978-1984, the second 1985-1989 and the third from 1990-1997 describing the long term impact after the opening of the road. The studies include the monitoring of the water environment, vegetation changes, air pollution, wear, outdoor recreation, economic development, land use changes etc. The main result show that environmental impact decreased rapidly after the period of road construction. On the other hand, human activities were not greatly affected during the construction phase, but after the road was opened the number of visitors to the area increased for a few years. We could also observe increased secondary effects, such as land use changes and new construction stimulated by the opening of the road.
The aim is to monitor the Lake Myvatn and the river Laxá ecosystem for (1) detecting trends, (2) detecting background variability in the system, (3) assess the efficiency of management measures, (4) observe perturbations in order to generate hypotheses about causal relationships.
Oil pollution and oil biodegradation in the inner part of Kandalaksha Bay and adjacent areas.
The 'NAR-2000' expedition was performed during August-September 2000. The overall programme of work includes: - monitoring of pollution in air, waters and bottom sediments of freshwater lakes, soils and terrestrial vegetation - soil/botanical studies - visual and remote sensing (aerial photos and video surveys) studies of damage to soil and vegetation cover. Samples of river water and bottom sediments from 25 freshwater bodies and samples from 16 terrestrial sites in the area of the Varandey and Toravey oil fields were taken for chemical analyses.
Stationary systematic observations of pollution in atmospheric air and precipitation. During 2000, observations of contaminant levels in atmospheric air in the cities of Murmansk, Nickel, Monchegorsk, Salekhard and Norilsk were conducted. Monitoring of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation was continued at the above locations and also at Yaniskosky (Kola peninsula) and Pinega (Arkhangelsk region) under the EMEP programme framework. Observations of CO2 were continued at the Teriberk station. Observations of the chemical content of atmospheric precipitation were carried out at 5 stations in the Arctic network of stationary observations: in the Krasnoshelye settlement area (Kola peninsula), Naryan-Mar (Pechora river area), Dikson Island, Turuhansk (Yenisey river area), and Kusyur settlement area (Lena river). Under a joint Russian-Canadian-AMAP project, monitoring of POPs and (from 2001) mercury in air at the Amderma site is conducted.
Brief: Assessment of the significance of aquatic food chains as a pathways of exposure of indigenous peoples to PTS, assessment of the relative importance of local and distant sources, and the role of atmospheric and riverine transport of PTS in Northern Russia. Project rationale and objectives: (1) To assess levels of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) in the environment in selected areas of the Russian North, their biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food chains, and contamination of traditional (country) foods that are important components of the diet of indigenous peoples. (2) To assess exposure of indigenous peoples in the Russian North to PTS, and the human health impacts of pollution from local and remote sources, as a basis for actions to reduce the risks associated with these exposures. (3) To inform indigenous peoples about contamination by PTS of their environment and traditional food sources, and empower them to take appropriate remedial actions to reduce health risks. (4) To enhance the position of the Russian Federation in international negotiations to reduce the use of PTS, and to empower the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON) to participate actively and fully in these negotiations. Project activities to achieve outcomes: (1) Inventory of local pollution sources in the vicinities of selected indigenous communities. (2) Survey of levels and fluxes of PTS in riverine and coastal marine environment important for indigenous peoples living in these environments and using them for their subsistence; and assessment of fluxes of PTS to these environments via selected rivers and the atmosphere. (3) Dietary surveys of selected indigenous communities. (4) Study of biomagnification, based on measurements of selected PTS in representative species in food chains important for the traditional diet of indigenous populations. (5) Survey and comparative assessment of pollution levels of the indigenous and general population in selected areas. (6) Dissemination of results to all relevant stakeholders.
1. Sediment study for heavy metals and selected organic contaminants. 2. Analysis of benthic organisms for heavy metals and selected organic contaminants. 3. Study of suspended sediment distribution, composition and sources. 4. Determination of partitioning of heavy metals between dissolved and particulate phases.
Establish a benchmark to gauge the efficacy of legislation restricting the use of marine antifoulants containing TBT on the Pacific coast of the US