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Displaying: 21 - 29 of 29
21. Radioecological Investigation of Kola Fjord

To investigate the impacts of Russia's military and civilian nuclear activities in the Kola Bay and adjacent areas of the northwest Arctic coast of Russia.

Sources Organochlorines PCBs Heavy metals Fish Radioactivity Discharges Spatial trends Pollution sources Contaminant transport Radionuclides Modelling Exposure Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Geochemistry Food webs Sediments Pesticides Ecosystems
22. Global Emission Inventory for Hg

Our knowledge of mercury fluxes on a global scale is still incomplete. Estimates indicate that Europe and North America contribute less than about 25 % to the global anthropogenic emissions of the element to the atmosphere. The majority of the remaining emissions originate from combustion of fossil fuels, particularly in the Asian countries including China, India, and South and North Korea. Even less and very controversial information is available on emissions of mercury from natural sources, including volatilization of the element from terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. In general, it is assumed that natural emissions of the element are about 3000 t/year, thus contributing more 60 % to the total global emissions of mercury. However, much work needs to be done in order to verify the above estimate.

anthropogenic sources Sources mercury Emissions Arctic
23. Environmental assessment of the Isfjorden complex, Svalbard

The project aims to carry out an environmental assessment of the marine environment close to the three main settlements in the Isfjorden complex; Barentsburg, Longyearbyen and Pyramiden. The study comprises analyses of sediment geochemistry and soft-bottom benthic fauna. Attention is given to distinguishing atmospheric transport of contaminants from those arising from local sources.

Biological effects Sources Pollution sources Contaminant transport Mining Primary recipient Radionuclides Modelling Dioxins/furans Sediments Pesticides Waste secondary recipient Biology Organochlorines PCBs Mapping Heavy metals PAHs Long-range transport Discharges Spatial trends Environmental management Petroleum hydrocarbons Biodiversity Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Data management Temporal trends Ecosystems
24. An investigation of factors affecting high mercury concentrations in predatory fish in the Mackenzie River Basin.

1. Continue to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in mercury concentrations in fish in lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin with a focus on predatory fish in smaller lakes near Fort Simpson but also including Great Bear Lake 2. Assess temporal trends in mercury concentrations and influencing factors, e.g., climate change 3. Conduct sediment core studies as opportunities allow to characterize long-term trends in mercury deposition and productivity 4. Integrate the findings of this study with our mercury trend monitoring in Great Slave Lake and the western provinces.

Pathways Sources Biology Organochlorines Mackenzie River Basin Soils Catchment studies Mercury Heavy metals Fish Indigenous people Pollution sources Environmental management Contaminant transport Food webs Sediments Atmosphere Human health Ecosystems
25. Lead Contamination of Greenland Birds

In Greenland lead exposure to humans from the local diet in general is very low. But the use of lead shot introduces a significant amount of lead in locally hunted birds. Human exposure to lead from the use of lead shot will be assessed by analysing breast meat from thick-billed murre and common eider. In common eider, the Greenland species which is suspected to be most exposed to lead toxicity, the frequency of embedded shots and of shots in the gizzard will be studied, and wing bones will be analysed for lead as an indicator of long-term exposure to lead.

Biological effects Sources Heavy metals Indigenous people Exposure Local pollution Seabirds Diet Human health Human intake
26. New Persistent Chemicals in the Arctic Environment

The objectives of this project are A) to determine coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDPEs), chlorophenolic compounds and chloroparaffins in air from arctic monitoring stations; and B) to search for other "new" chemicals in the arctic environment, not currently monitored by Canada's Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) but of potential concern based on known persistence, extent of usage and toxicology.

Sources PCAs BDPEs Pollution sources Exposure monitoring chloroparaffins Sediments Pesticides SCCPs Human intake Marine mammals new chemicals polychlorinated naphthalenes Pathways Organochlorines PCBs chlorinated paraffins Long-range transport brominated diphenyl ethers Spatial trends HAAs Arctic PCNs Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) synthetic musks haloacetic acids Atmosphere polychlorinated alkanes
27. Global Gridded gamma-HCH and Endosulfan Emission Inventories

The aim of this project is to compile information and create a computerized database of historical and present global lindane and endosulfan usage data as well as emission data for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) and endosulfan with 1 degree x 1 degree lat/long resolution. The objectives of this project are: A) to create global gridded g-HCH and endosulfan emission inventories; B) to study the linkage between global g-HCH and endosulfan use trends and g-HCH and endosulfan concentration trends in the Arctic; and C) to assist in comparing concentrations and ratios of different HCH isomers in the Arctic biotic and abiotic environments.

Sources emission inventory b-HCH alpha-HCH Pollution sources Contaminant transport Modelling GIS a-HCH hexachlorocyclohexane Pesticides endosulfan beta-HCH Organochlorines Mapping lindane ß-HCH Long-range transport Discharges Spatial trends gamma-HCH gridded Emissions HCH Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) g-HCH Data management Atmosphere Temporal trends
28. Spatial trends in loadings and historical inputs of mercury inferred from Arctic lake sediment cores

1. To determine the depth profiles of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) as well as manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in fifteen dated Arctic sediment cores over a three year period. Mercury is the main focus. 2. To quantify geographical trends in fluxes of the mercury and its enrichment factors in Nunavut, NWT, Nunavik, and Labrador. To link mercury findings with those of paleolimnological indicators, POPs, as well as indicators of biogeochemical processes of manganese and iron, all of which are obtained from the same cores, or cores from the same sites whenever possible. 3. To complement existing data on mercury in Arctic sediment cores with data generated over a much wider latitudinal and longitudinal range than previous work in order to provide a better understanding of Hg in Canada North. 4. Secondary to Hg, to provide loading data for Pb which may help elucidate the understanding of Hg pathways and sources.

Pathways Sources Metals pollution Canadian Arctic Mercury Heavy metals Spatial trends Arctic Sediments Remote lakes
29. Halocarbons in the atmosphere

The objectives are: 1. to monitor in near-real time the levels of a whole suite of halocarbons (both biogenic and anthropogenic) ranging through CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs using an adsorption/desorption system coupled to a GC/MS system not using liquid cryogens. 2.The system will be installed (April 2000) at the Ny-Alesund, Zeppelin Research Station and will be operated and owned by NILU (Dr. N.SChmidbauer). 3. Comparisons will be made with the data obtained (since Oct. 1994) on similar compounds from the Mace Head (Ireland) station which uses similar instrumentation, and the Jungfraujoch Station (Jan 2000) operated by EMPA (Dr. Stefan Reimann). 4. Data will be compared to the Southern Hemisphere data collected at Cape Grimm, Tasmania by CSIRO (Dr. P. Fraser) 5. Data will be used to model the dispersion of the halocarbons in the high latitudes and possible consequences for radiative forcing.

Atmospheric processes Sources Long-range transport Contaminant transport Climate change Halocarbons Emissions Anthropogenic Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Local pollution Atmosphere Biogenic